Recorded history shows that Luxembourg's eponymous capital city (sometimes also referred to at Luxembourg City) arrived on the scene in 963. Built as a fortress city, it possessed great strategic value throughout much of Europe's tumultuous history. At 998 square miles, and with a population of roughly 493,500, the country of Luxembourg is tiny, but it is also quite powerful. Its financial sector is one of the most important in Europe, and it has the highest GDP per capita in the world (approximately $113,00 according to the IMP, whereas the U.S. is at about $47,000). Luxembourg's citizens do speak Luxembourgish, but also speak French and German (the other two official languages) and often English.
Luxembourg City is not big, but there is plenty to do to fill a weekend. I loved exploring the historic fortifications as well as walking around the adorable old town (someone once told me that the city looks like it was plucked out of Disneyland, and they were right), both of which were named World Heritage sites by UNESCO. There is a cathedral and a couple of large churches to visit, a number of theatrical and musical venues, excellent shopping opportunities, and an impressive number of fine dining options. Be sure to try one of Luxembourg's wines or sparkling wines, which are said to rival their more famous French neighbors. The rest of the country offers beautiful rolling hills and plenty of outdoor activities.
One of the things I liked best about Luxembourg was that it was small. Larger European capitals are amazing (hello, Paris!), but can sometimes be overwhelming. I felt relaxed in Luxembourg, which is not usually something you feel in, say, London or Brussels. The city gives you the impression of being isolated from the rest of the world, and provides a unique and beautiful escape. We might not know much about Luxembourg, but maybe we should.